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Full text of "Kentucky Rock Asphalt for modern tennis courts, playgrounds, sidewalks and recreation areas."

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Kentucky Rock Osphult 

for 
MODERN TENNIS COURTS, PLAYGROUNDS, SIDEWALKS 

AND RECREATION AREAS 




KENTUCKY ROCK ASPHALT INSTITUTE 

LOUISVILLE, KENTUCKY 
MAY 1939 



PREFACE 

THIS booklet has been prepared to answer the many requests 
received from School and Park Boards, municipal and other pub- 
lic officials, as well as individuals interested in recreational work, for 
proper designs and methods of constructing rock asphalt tennis 
courts, playgrounds, and sidewalks. 

Contained herein are suggestions for treating subgrade and drainage 
problems; methods of base construction and surface courses; a de- 
tailed method of laying out a tennis court; designs and cross sections 
for tennis courts and playgrounds. 

The designs provide for playgrounds which may be converted into 
basket ball; volley ball; or tennis courts. The tennis courts may also 
be used for skating rinks, as described in the text, 

A special chapter is written on sidewalks which are becoming more 
necessary in rural communities and city parks because of the higher 
speeds of automobiles. There is also a chapter on the proper main- 
tenance of a Kentucky Rock Asphalt surface. 

The text is illustrated not only with drawings, but also with photo- 
graphs showing various courts and playgrounds that have been con- 
structed with a Kentucky Rock Asphalt surface. 

A booklet entitled "Kentucky Rock Asphalt — Specifications and De- 
signs" gives complete specifications for constructing rock asphalt 
highway and street pavements. This booklet will also be furnished 
to interested parties upon request. 

KENTUCKY ROCK ASPHALT INSTITUTE, 

312 South Fourth Street, 

Louisville, Kentucky 






Kentucky Rock Asphalt 

The Ideal Surfacing for Tennis Courts, Playgrounds, 
Sidewalks and Recreational Areas 




Battery of 12 Tennis Courts in Grant Park. Chicago. 111. Kentucky Rock Asphalt Surface on 
Waterbound Macadam Base. Laid 1931. Michigan Avenue's imposing skyline in the background. 
There arc 200 Kentucky Rock Asphalt Tennis Courts in the Park System of the City of Chicago. 



KENTUCKY ROCK ASPHALT INSTITUTE 

was formed and is supported by the 
companies with long standing 
and experience in the 
production of Ken- 
tucky Rock 
Asphalt 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Chapter I— DESCRIPTION AND ADVANTAGES OF KENTUCKY ROCK ASPHALT 

ON TENNIS COURTS. PLAYGROUNDS, AND SIDEWALKS Page 4 

Chapter II— DRAINAGE AND SUBGRADE 

Subgrade Drainage " 5 

Subgrade " 6 

Surface Drainage " 6 

Chapter III— BASE AND SURFACE COURSES 

Materials " 7 

Base Course Construction " 7 

Fine Aggregate Courses " 7 

Coarse Aggregate Courses " 8 

Binder or Intermediate Course " 8 

Concrete Base " 8 

Rock Asphalt Surface " 9 

Chapter IV— DESIGNS FOR TENNIS COURTS AND PLAYGROUNDS 

Laying out a Tennis Court " ] 

Width of Lines " 11 

White Paint for Lining Purposes " 11 

Battery of Tennis Courts " 11 

Playground Convertible into Tennis Courts, Volley Ball or 

Basket Ball Courts " 12 

Use of a Tennis Court or Playground as a Skating Rink " 12 

Lighting Methods for Night Activities " 13 

Cross Sections for Various Designs " 14 

Chapter V— SIDEWALKS 

Purpose of Walk " 16 

Designs " 16 

Local Materials for Base " 16 

Spreading Rock Asphalt " 16 

Rolling " 16 

Resurfacing of Old Walks " 17 

Chapter VI— MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR OF ROCK ASPHALT SURFACES " 18 

TOOLS FOR SPREADING KENTUCKY ROCK ASPHALT " 20 

STEAMING MANIFOLD FOR HEATING KENTUCKY ROCK ASPHALT " 21 

ESTIMATED QUANTITIES OF MATERIALS " 22 



CHAPTER I 



ADVANTAGES OF KENTUCKY ROCK ASPHALT 
on Tennis Courts, Playgrounds and Sidewalks 



Kentucky Rock Asphalt is a sandstone impregnated 
with native bitumen by Nature's own forces. It has 
endured through the ages in the earth's crust. The 
sand in Kentucky Rock Asphalt is over 93 f /£ 
silica. The hard, angular silica sand grains, ideally 
graded by nature, are bonded together with 1% to 
9'< natural asphalt. For commercial use the bitu- 
minous sandstone is crushed and finely pulverized. 
The pulverized material is spread over the base 
and rolled. The rolling reestablishes the bond. 
While Kentucky Rock Aspalt is principally used as 
a street and highway surfacing material, it is also 
extensively used for surfacing playgrounds, tennis 
courts, walkways, airports, etc. Examples of these 
may be found in many sections of the country. 

Its fine sand grain composition makes its surface 
smooth, easy on the feet, and yet it provides a non- 
skid surface. This non-skid characteristic makes it 
ideal for playgrounds. Its resilient quality prevents 
much of the fatigue in ankles and arches experi- 
enced by players using a rigid type of surface. 

It produces a non-glaring surface that is easy on 
the eyes. 

Playgrounds surfaced with rock asphalt require 
less attention than the clay surfaces, as they re- 
quire practically no work to keep clean and sani- 
tary and there is no tracking of mud into the school 
buildings. Hence, children's clothing is easier to 
launder and requires less changing. A playground 



or tennis court surfaced with Kentucky Rock As- 
phalt may be used immediately after a rain. 
The rock asphalt court eliminates the necessity for 
frequent weeding, dragging, rolling and sprinkling 
very necessary on a clay court. It retains the con- 
ventional line markings on the surface for long 
periods. This, too, is a saving in upkeep cost. Hence, 
the amount saved in maintenance of a rock asphalt 
court over a clay court will soon pay for the initial 
added cost of a rock asphalt surface. 

Kentucky Rock Asphalt possesses all the require- 
ments for a first class sidewalk. It is clean and 
free from dust, durable, firm, but yet resilient 
enough to be yielding under foot. It can readily be 
built to a smooth surface and presents a non-glar- 
ing, pleasing appearance. 

From a safety point of view, this material ranks 
high. It does not crack or buckle and form obstruc- 
tions to pedestrians as a more rigid type of mater- 
ial may do. These features together with the fact 
that it is the most non-skid type of paving material 
will prevent many accidents now due to falling on 
slippery surfaces. 

Any Kentucky Rock Asphalt surface can easily be 
repaired with the same material so that the patch 
will not be conspicuous or even noticed. This is a 
desirable feature in walks, playgrounds, and tennis 
courts, in order to preserve their original uni- 
formity in color. 




Four Tennis Courts in Juneau Park, Milwaukee. Wis., surfaced with Kentucky Rock Asphalt. Laid 1930. Con- 
struction for six additional courts in background. The surface is clean and smooth, and produces a true bound 
to the ball. It holds the line markings well, is non-skid and produces no glare in the brightest sunshine. 



CHAPTER II 



Subgrade Drainage DRAINAGE AND SUBGRADE 



The need for subgrade drainage depends upon the 
nature of subgrade soil. Gravelly or sandy soil will 
usually furnish sufficient drainage so that subsoil 
drains will not be necessary. 

On clay soils that have no natural drainage and on 
subgrades located where hillside seepages or spring 
water prevails, it is desirable that subdrains be in- 
stalled. It may also be desirable to have subsoil 
drains to carry the surface water as described 
under "Surface Drainage". 

These same subsoil drains which carry the surface 
water may be a part of the necessary subdrainage 
system. Laterals to the main drain that carries the 
surface water, can be made of French drains or 
common drain tile. It is desirable to construct the 
main drain that carries the surface water of vitri- 
fied sewer pipe or its equivalent in order to better 



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FR £NCH DRAI N 



guarantee against breaking down or clogging, al- 
though for isolated courts, common drain tile 
should be satisfactory. 

Where hillside seepage is a source of poor drain- 
age, an intercepting drain between the court and 
hillside may be constructed like that shown in 
Figure 1. Where the entire subgrade is poorly 
drained, lateral drains spaced about 20 ft. may be 
placed under the entire court, joining with the 
main subsoil drain as shown in Figure 2. (Subsoil 
drains properly installed will reduce to some ex- 
tent the thickness of base required.) 

Where courts are built on a fill or elevation above 
the surrounding terrain, usually no subsoil drain- 
age will be needed except where a battery of 
courts may require subsoil drains to carry the sur- 
face wa'u , . 




FIGl RE i Method oi Enf Tcepting Hillside Seepage 



FIGl RE ' De oil Draina 




Battery of 8 Tennis Courts in Williamsbridge Park. Bronx. New York City. 
3 4 inch Kentucky Rock Asphalt Surface on a 4 inch course of Lime- 
stone Screenings and Emulsified Asphalt on 8 inches of Cinders. Laid 1937. 



CHAPTER II 

DRAINAGE AND SUBGRADE 



Sub grade 

After all drainage has been installed and all per- 
manent subgrade structures placed, the area under 
consideration shall be brought to the proper grade 
and rolled until thoroughly compacted. Where fills 
are to be made, the earth shall be placed in level 
courses not exceeding 4 inches in depth and thor- 
oughly rolled or hand tamped. If this tamping or 
rolling is not done, the fill shall stand for several 
months to properly settle. In compacting new fills 
the use of a reasonable amount of water will 
hasten settlement. 

Emphasis shall be placed upon the uniformity of 
the subgrade and it shall have sufficient stability 
to carry the loaded vehicles used to convey the 
base materials to the project without any notice- 
able deformation of the surface. If necessary to 
produce this stability, an inch or more of cinders, 
bank-run gravel, or stone screenings, or other fine 
aggregate shall be harrowed into the subgrade and 
rolled. 

Surface Drainage 

Surface water may be carried off the playground 
or tennis court in several ways. In making a design 
for a court, care should be exercised not to have 



too much nor too little fall. Too much fall will give 
an advantage to the player on the high side. Too 
little fall will retard surface drainage following a 
rain. This is not only objectionable to the players 
but the standing water slowly soaks into the sur- 
face and foundation and may be very detrimental 
to both. 

Surface Drainage 

In Figure 3 are three suggested designs, and in Fig- 
ure 4, another for surface drainage of tennis courts, 
which from the player's standpoint, permit good 
sight distance and give equal advantages to both 
sides. For single court construction, Design 1, 2, or 
3, may be used. For a multiple court construction, 
Design 2 or 4 may be used. From the construction 
point of view, the first three designs are equally 
practical. Design 4 is more difficult to construct. 
In much of the above discussion for drainage, ref- 
erence has been made only to tennis courts; how- 
ever, the same principles apply to playgrounds. 
Playgrounds will usually permit a greater spacing 
between surface drainage outlets. It is desirable 
that these be so located as to remove all the sur- 
face water very soon after it falls. 



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Three designs of Surface Drainage for Tennis Courts. 





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FIGURE 4 

Six Courts showing a method of design for Surface Drainage 



CHAPTER III 

BASE AND SURFACE COURSES 



Design of Cross Section 

The design of the cross section shall conform to one 
described on pages 14 and 15 as may be designated. 
The courses shall consist of approved material con- 
structed on the subgrade prepared in a manner 
previously described. These courses shall be con- 
structed in conformity to the lines and grades 
shown on the plans or as ordered by the Engineer. 

Materials 

The aggregates to be used in the various courses 
shall be sound and of good quality crushed stone, 
slag, gravel, and sand, meeting the State Highway 
Department specifications for road or similar work. 
Where cinders and clinkers are specified, they shall 
be well graded and of average good quality of 
these materials. 

Coarse Aggregate 

Coarse aggregate shall consist of crushed gravel, 
stone, and slag, and shall range in size from 1 to 
2V2 inches and shall be uniformly spread without 
segregating the different sized material. The 
crusher-run stone shall all pass through a IV2 inch 
square mesh and have not less than 15% nor more 
than 25%' that will pass through % inch square 
mesh. Stone screenings shall range in size from % 
inch down to and including the dust from crusher- 
run material of such nature that it will well bond 
the coarser aggregate. 

Hank- Run Gravel 

Bank-run gravel shall have a maximum size of 1V2 
inches and include not less than 40% nor more 
than 80% through the V4 inch screen. It may not 
exceed 5 r c clay when used alone in a course and 
shall contain 5% to 10%. when used in a mixture 
with cinders and crusher-run stone. 

Bitumitums Materials 

The bituminous materials shall meet State Highway 
Department specifications for such materials used 
in similar work in pavements. 



Cement Concrete 

Where concrete base is used, the aggregate and work- 
manship shall conform to the State Highway De- 
partment specifications for Portland cement con- 
crete pavement. 

The top or wearing course shall consist of Ken- 
tucky Rock Asphalt meeting the specifications for 
natural or processed sandstone rock asphalt pre- 
scribed by the Kentucky Rock Asphalt Institute, 
which specifications will be furnished on request. 

Base Course Construction 

The material in the base courses shall be spread to 
the specified grade in layers of uniform thickness 
and density and each layer thoroughly compacted 
by rolling before the next layer is placed thereon. 
Any places inaccessible to the roller shall be thor- 
oughly hand tamped. After dry rolling the aggre- 
gate shall be watered in such amount that contin- 
ued sprinkling and rolling will produce a maxi- 
mum density. 

Fine Aggregate Course 

If the subsoil is clay, an insulation layer of IV2 to 
2V2 inches of coarse sand, crusher-run stone, stone 
screenings, cinders, clinkers, or bank-run gravel, 
(or a mixture of two or more of these materials) as 
approved by the engineer, shall be spread upon the 
subgrade. These materials shall be uniformly mixed 
and spread by the use of a grader, or harrow. A 
small amount of subsoil may be intimately mixed 
with the fine aggregate in the harrowing operation, 
if necessary to aid in compacting it. After spread- 
ing to uniform density this fine aggregate course 
shall be sprinkled lightly and rolled until solid and 
compacted. If required additional limestone screen- 
ings or other suitable fine aggregate shall be spread 
upon and harrowed into this course and the sprink- 
ling and rolling continued with a sufficient time 
interval to secure good compaction. If sand is used 
for this fine aggregate course not more than 2 
inches in depth shall be applied. Any additional 
thickness of the course shall consist of crusher-run 
stone or any of the other materials mentioned 
herein, and they shall be so graded and mixed as 
to produce a solid compact layer when rolled. 



CHAPTER III 



BASE COURSES 




Constructing a bituminous macadam base preparatory to laying the Kentucky Rock As- 
p] It surface course on a battery of six Tennis Courts in Juneau Park, Milwaukee, Wis. 



Coarse Aggregate Courses 

Upon the si bgrade, or fine aggregate course as pre- 
viously constructed, the base course material shall 
be uniformly spread and compacted by rolling. No 
single layer in the base course shall have a thick- 
ness when compacted of more than 4 inches. If 
crushed stone, slag, or gravel type of base course 
is constructed, it shall be filled with limestone 
screenings or other approved bonding material, 
and rolled and sprinkled until a solid compacted 
surface is produced in accordance with the specifi- 
cations of the State Highway Department for 
waterbound macadam work. Care shall be taken 
against over-sprinkling that will soften the sub- 
grade. 

If a bituminous macadam penetration base is con- 
structed, it shall be done in accordance with the 
State Highway Department specification for this 
class of work. 

Binder or Intermediate Course 

When specified, a binder course on which to lay the 
Kentucky Rock Asphalt surface shall be constructed 
on the base. This binder course shall consist of a 
penetration macadam, standard hot-mix binder, 
any of the acceptable designs of cold-mix plant 
binders, or cold-mix binder as prepared locally in 
concrete mixer of ample capacity. The coarse ag- 
gregate to be used in this last described mixture 
shall conform to standard specifications with a gra- 



dation between V 2 inch and 1 V2 inches, depending on 
thickness of course. The bituminous material to be 
used in this mixture shall be a standard product, 
liquid asphalt, cutback asphalt, coal tar, or asphalt 
emulsion. In the construction of all these binder 
courses, the material shall be uniformly spread and 
well compacted by rolling when it is in the right 
curing stage to best solidify under the roller. (Dur- 
ing extremely hot weather, it may be necessary to 
delay the completion of the rolling for some hours, 
or even days, after the bituminous course is laid in 
order that the right degree of stiffness will have de- 
veloped in the mix to aid its compaction. During cold 
weather the rolling shall be done soon after the 
material is laid and before the bituminous mixture 
becomes hard and brittle.) All binders containing 
an appreciable amount of volatile matter shall be 
permitted to cure, as directed by the Engineer, be- 
fore spreading the rock asphalt thereon. 

Concrete Base 

For a Portland cement concrete base it is recom- 
mended to use a 1 :3:6 mix, of properly graded clean 
gravel, stone, slag or cinders, for the coarse aggre- 
gate. The fine aggregate shall be clean sand, stone 
screenings or a combination of both. The Portland 
cement concrete shall be in accordance with stand- 
ard specifications for this class of work. 



CHAPTER III 



KENTUCKY ROCK ASPHALT SURFACE COURSE 



Paint Coat. If no binder course is used, the base shall 
be given a paint coat of liquid asphalt, emulsion or 
cut back of 0.1 to 0.2 gallons per square yard to 
bond the rock asphalt to it. This paint coat shall be 
sufficient to coat the surface of the base but leave 
no pools of asphalt thereon. 

Rock Asphalt. Upon the binder course, or the base 
course, where no binder course is specified and 
when dry and the asphalt in the binder or paint 
coat is tacky, the rock asphalt shall be uniformly 
spread by hand in the specified amount. 

Spreading Rock Asphalt. As a guide in spreading the 
rock asphalt to a uniform surface and the proper 
thickness, metal gauge strips shall be laid on the 
surface to be covered, spaced not more than 3 feet 
apart. The height of the strips shall be such as to 
secure the specified amount of rock asphalt. (The 
rock asphalt will compact about one-third its loose 
depth.) The metal gauge strips shall be 14 to 18 
feet long and preferably made of 3/16 or 17 4 inch 
thick steel. 

When brought on the work the rock asphalt shall be 
deposited on dumping boards or on an area ahead 
of the space on which it is to be spread. From there 
it shall be shoveled to its position on the base in 
such manner as to produce a uniformly dense 
layer. All lumps shall be broken and the material 
raked to its full depth with suitable asphalt rakes 
until it is thoroughly and uniformly loosened and 
the surface is level and to the proper cross section. 
All rock asphalt shall be shoveled and no material 
shall be raked into place from the piles. After rak- 
ing, the loose asphalt shall be brought to the eleva- 
tion of the top of the gauge strips by the use of 
lutes pulled longitudinally on the gauge strips. A 
uniformly dense and even surface texture shall be 
produced without honeycombed areas. The surface 
shall be reraked and reluted, if necessary, to pro- 



duce this condition. The luting and raking shall be 
carried on immediately behind the shovelers as a 
continuous operation with the spreading. After the 
rock asphalt is spread and leveled as described 
above, the gauge strips shall be pulled forward a 
distance not to exceed 6 feet and the spreading and 
leveling operations continued. 

After the gauge strips are pulled forward, the loose 
rock asphalt surface shall be cross floated with a 
long-handled heavy float in such a way as to elimi- 
nate all irregularities and grooves left by the metal 
strips. Such additional rock asphalt, free from 
lumps, shall be cast over the surface during the 
cross floating as may be necessary to produce a 
level surface. At no time shall the workmen be al- 
lowed to walk on the rock asphalt befi re it is raked, 
luted and rolled. 

During cool weather, rock asphalt can be more 
easily unloaded from railroad cars and spread if it 
is warmed by injecting just sufficient dry steam 
into it to make it workable. See design for small 
steaming equipment on page 21. Complete draw- 
ing of larger steaming equipment will be furnished 
on request. 

Rotting. After the rock asphalt is properly spread 
as described above, it shall be well compacted by 
rolling when dry, with a self propelled roller 
weighing not less than 5 tons. It shall be rolled 
several times, preferably on different days if the 
weather is warm. The last rolling shall be done 
when the rock asphalt is at such temperature that 
the wheel marks left from the previous rolling will 
be eliminated and no appreciable marks left. The 
roller shall not he turned sharply so as to distort the surface. 
If the rock asphalt is laid directly upon a concrete 
or other rigid base, it shall be rolled but once. In 
the rolling operation the roller should lap V 2 the 
area of the previous trip. 





Applying paint coat preparatory to spreading rock asphalt. 



Spreading the rock asphalt by hand methods. 



10 



CHAPTER IV 



DESIGNS FOR TENNIS COURTS AND PLAYGROUNDS 



The design of tennis courts and playgrounds is not 
complicated yet certain standards must be com- 
plied with to make them satisfactory. 

Playgrounds. Since the playground will have to ac- 
commodate itself to the size, shape, and location of 
the available space, each one will be a special prob- 
lem for individual study. It is important that it be 
constructed with sufficient slope for proper drain- 
age. A desirable slope is 0.5 % , although from 0.5' { 
to l.Q% (or 6 to 12 inch fall per 100 lineal ft.) is 
satisfactory. While as large as 3S slopes are some- 
times used, so large a slope is not desirable where 
games are to be played. If the playground is to be 
used as a tennis court, that portion should conform 
in slope to one of the designs shown in Figure 3 
or 4, page 6. 

Laying out a Tennis Court. In Figure 5 is shown all 
dimensions of a Doubles Court (used by four play- 
ers) which is a rectangle 36 ft. wide by 78 ft. long. 
A Singles Court (used by only two players) is 27 



ft. wide by 78 ft. long. This design is shown in Fig- 
ure 5 without the two outer side lines. 

Having decided upon the position of the net, set 2 
stakes 27 ft. apart, N and T, in Figure 5, which 
establishes the net line. At each end of the court, 
parallel with the net line and 39 ft. from it, are 
drawn the base lines AB and CD, the ends of which 
are connected by the side lines AC and BD. On 
each side of the net, at a distance of 21 ft. from it, 
and parallel with it, are drawn the service lines 
EF and GH. Halfway between the side lines and 
parallel with them is drawn the center line RS, di- 
viding the space on each side of the net into two 
equal parts, the right and left courts. 

If a transit is not available, the easiest way to lay 
out a Doubles Court is to lay out a Singles Court 
and then add the extra lines to complete the Dou- 
bles Court, as follows: After deciding upon the 
position of the net, set two stakes N and T, 27 ft. 
apart in Figure 5. Attach to these stakes the ends 



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11 



CHAPTER IV 

DESIGNS FOR TENNIS COURTS AND PLAYGROUNDS 



of two measuring tapes; TA, 47 feet, 5 inches long 
and NA, 39 ft. long. Draw both taut until they meet 
at point A. This will give one corner of the court. 
At point E, 21 ft. from N, put in a stake to mark 
one end of the service line. By interchanging the 
measures and repeating the process the other 
corner B and other end of service line F are located. 

The same process on the other side of the net line 
will complete the outside boundaries of the Singles 
Court. By connecting the middle points R and S of 
the service lines, the center line will be made. By 
extending the two base lines 4 ft. 6 inches each way 
and connecting the four new points, the boundaries 
of the Doubles Court will be completed. 

The Back Stops are constructed 21 ft. behind and 
parallel to the base lines, the full width of the 
Doubles Court, or 36 ft. From each end at an angle 
of 45 degrees to the base line, the back stops are 
extended 10 to 20 ft. The back stops should be 10 
to 12 ft. high, of 2 inch mesh if made of heavy hard 
wire; or IY2 inch mesh if light, soft wire is used. 

Width of Lnt<s. The center and service lines are 
made 2 inches wide; base lines, 4 inches wide; all 
other lines, 1 to 2 inches wide. 



White Paint for Lining Purposes. It is very desirable 
that the court markings on the asphalt surface be 
made with a good white paint. The following for- 
mula for a white paint is very satisfactory: 

Mix dry one-half (%) pound of pulverized glue and 
one-half (%) pound of whiting. To this add two (2) 
pounds of common salt and mix thoroughly. 

Heat to 212°F. four (4) gallons of water to which 
has been added four (4) teaspoons of bluing. Add 
this solution slowly to the above mixture and stir 
until thoroughly dissolved. To five (5) pounds of 
unslaked lime add enough of the above solution 
slowly until the lime is thoroughly slaked. Allow 
this to cool. To the remainder of the solution add 
this five (5) pounds of slaked lime and stir until 
thoroughly blended. 

This solution may then be thinned to any consist- 
ency by adding water. 

Any standard Highway Department specifications 
for road marking should be a good guide in the se- 
lection of paint for this purpose. 



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00 

i. 



BATTERY OF TWO TENNIS COURTS 
AREA TO BE SURFACED 108 X IZQ FEET 



Batten/ oj Tennis Courts 

Where a battery of tennis 
courts is constructed, it is nec- 
essary that proper spacing of 
same be made. Not only must 
sufficient leev ' be provided 
at the ends of a cou t but also 
sufficient room left between 
the side of the courts so that 
there will be no interference 
with players or hazard intro- 
duced. In Figure 6 is shown a 
battery of two courts with a 
spacing of 12 ft. between the 
outer side lines. This is the 
minimum spacing that should 
be allowed, although where 
space is important this distance 
is sometimes reduced. If plenty 
of space is available, it is better 
that this distance be as much 
as 24 ft. 



FIGURE 6 



12 



CHAPTER IV 

CONVERTIBLE PLAYGROUNDS 



Figure 7 shows a playground which may be con- 
verted into a tennis court or basket ball court, the 
latter shown by dotted lines; also a tennis court 
converted into a volley ball court, the latter shown 
by dotted lines. 

Tennis Court or Playground as Skating Rink 

For ice skating This is accomplished by placing a 
small ridge of saturated clay earth about one foot 
high around the border of the area to be flooded. 
This earth should be tamped and compacted and 
permitted to freeze so that it will be water-resist- 
ant before the area inside is flooded. The shallow 
reservoir thus created is flooded until the ice is 
frozen several inches thick. When the ice thaws 
the earth embankment is removed, allowing the 
water to drain from the court. All skating should 
be stopped when the ice becomes soft which would 
permit the skates to cut through it and damage the 
court surface. The court or playground should not 
be used after it is drained until the surface is well 
dried. Also it is desirable to flood a court only after 
it has been constructed a year and been played on 
at least one season so that its surface will be well 
compacted. It will, of course, be practical to so 
utilize the courts or playgrounds as ice skating 
rinks only in northern climates where frequent 
winter thaws are not common. 



For use as a rotter skating or roller hockey rink, these 
rock asphalt courts and playgrounds need no par- 
ticular preparation. 

Where a tennis court is to be converted into an- 
other form of playground, it is necessary that the 
posts be removable. This is usually accomplished 
by setting 2V 2 inch pipes, 2 or 2V 2 ft. in the ground, 
preferably in concrete, flush with the surface. The 
up-right posts are set into these and can be taken 
down at will. When the stakes are removed, the 
ground pipes are plugged or capped. 




Roller Skating Hockey on Kentucky Rock Asphalt 
wearing surface, Williamsbridge Park. Bronx, N. Y. 



fc-O" 




K 



igQ'- O" 



FRONT ELEVATION ^ 
BASKETBALL GOAL J 

8 




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tz 



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SIDE ELEVATION 
BASKETBALL GOAL 



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- I 



L !__ - b i - - - - i - i 4 



SCHOOL 
HOUSE. 



13 



CHAPTER IV 

LIGHTING METHODS FOR PLAYGROUNDS 




Showing method of lighting used on this B ! .. <> lourta 

in Merrill Park Playground, Milwaukee Wis I -inch Kentiu Ro< k As- 
phalt Surface on old Macadam Base as shown m foreground 



L igh t ing < He I h 01 is for Nig hi Ackivitie / 

Frequently it is desirable for night activities to 
have a court or playground lighted. If night activi- 
ties are attempted the lighting should be done 
properly. Figure 8 illustrates a method of lighting 
one court. Five lights equally spaced with a mini- 
mum candle power of 1,000 are suspended from a 
cable between the tops of two poles not less than 
30 feet high, set at either end of the court. Side 
lights may be desirable where a battery of courts 
or a playground is to be lighted. A utility engineer 
versed in lighting should be consulted in this work. 



HH>- 



4 



i 



FIGl R 
Lighting Layoul for a Tenni I 





Battery of Kentucky Rock Asphalt Tennis Courts 
in Forest Park. New York City. Laid 1936. 



Battery of Kentucky Rock Asphalt Tennis Courts at 7 
ern State Teachers College. Bowling Green. Ky. Laid 



14 



CHAPTER IV 



CROSS SECTIONS FOR VARIOUS DESIGNS 



On the following page are shown various cross sec- 
tions that may be used for tennis courts, play- 
grounds, and sidewalks. 

The design of cross section will be governed by the 
nature of the soil foundation and availability of 
local aggregates (stone, gravel, slag, etc.) Stability 
and a suitable condition for the wearing surface to 
adhere to, is the prime requisite for the base. While 
specific thicknesses of base courses are given, these 
may be reduced on a stable, gravelly, well drained 
soil. They may have to be increased in thickness 
for stability on very unstable soils with poor drain- 
age. The following comments are made on the vari- 
ous cross sections. 

Section /—Consists of 1 inch rock asphalt on a 6 
inch waterbound macadam base built in two 
courses. After the top course is dry the excess loose 
screenings, dust, dirt, and caked screenings are 
scraped and swept off the surface, a paint coat of 
liquid asphalt, cutback, or emulsion, is applied in 
such quantity as to just thoroughly coat all the 
surface stone. This amount will usually be from 
.10 to .20 gallons per square yard. The rock asphalt 
is spread just as soon as the paint coat becomes 
tacky and before it is dry and brittle. 

Section 2 — Consists of 1 inch of rock asphalt laid on 
a 4 inch concrete base made of 1:3:6 mix according 
to good standard specifications for Portland ce- 
ment concrete pavement. After the concrete has 
sufficiently hardened, its surface is painted with 
liquid asphalt, cutback, or emulsion, in the amount 
of about .10 gallon per square yard which is per- 
mitted to become tacky and the rock asphalt is 
then spread thereon, 

Sed i to 1 inch of rock asphalt 

laid on a 4 inch bituminous (penetration) macadam 
base after a fine aggre^at- i has been con- 

structed 1% to 4 inches in depth on the clay sub- 

tde. Such a fine aggregate course may be used 
uno< ither sections when poor d: 

subsoil conditions require it. This thinner 

rock asphalt top is made possible by the use of a 

1 compacted bituminous course. The better the 

• struction of tins course the thinner the rock as- 
phalt t 

1 inch of rock asphalt 
laid on a 1 to 1 J j inch binder course which is I 
ch waterbound macadam. 

1 inch rock asphalt 
top on a 1 to IV4 inch bituminous concrete binder 
laid on inch well rolled sandstone base. If 



necessary to secure proper bond in the sandstone 
base, limestone screenings shall be applied and the 
surface sprinkled as the rolling is done. The sand- 
stone may be rolled in one 5 inch course. If limestone 
is not available, as a substitute the rolled sandstone 
may be given a treatment of liquid asphalt, cut- 
back, or emulsion, in the amount of 0.3 to 0.5 gal- 
lons per square yard, applied in two applications 
if necessary. 

Section 6 — Bureau of Parks, New York City Specifi- 
cations. Consists of % inch of rock asphalt laid on 
3 inches compacted (4" loose) mixture of limestone 
screenings (IGO'r' passing V2 inch screen) and stabi- 
lized with an emulsified asphalt. The limestone 
screenings and emulsion are premixed on the job 
in a concrete mixer. Sufficient water is added to 
make the mix the proper consistency. Sixteen (16) 
gallons of emulsion are used to 1 cubic yard of ag- 
gregate. After the course has reached its initial 
set it shall be thoroughly rolled before the rock 
asphalt is laid thereon. 

Section 7 — Consists of 1 inch of rock asphalt on a 3 
to 4 inch waterbound macadam that has been given 
a paint coat. The macadam is constructed on a fine 
aggregate course 1% to 2% inches thick, con- 
structed on the subgrade as described in Chapter 
III. 

an 8 — Consists of 1 inch rock asphalt on a IV2 
inch layer of :i i to IV2 inch size stone, slag, or 
crushed gravel constructed on a 4 inch course of 
stabilized soil. The IV2 inch aggregate course is 
rolled into the stabilized soil before it is fully hard- 

d or if dry and hard, it is softened by sprinkling, 
allowing sufficient time to permit the aggregate to 
set in the base. A paint coat of liquid asphalt, cut- 
back, or emulsion, is applied to the aggregate before 
the rock asphalt is spread thereon. If Florida linn - 
1 ' as an alternate to the above IV2 

inch layer 1 the lime rock shall be given a 

prime coat treatment of light tar or slow curing 
phalt oil. After this dries there shall be applied an 

asphalt si 
COV( fiich shall be well rolled and allowed to 

CUT* >ck asp! spread tl 

Any course shall be given sufficient time to sot and 
harden before the placed thereon. 

This time will \ th the nature oi the material 

being used ano 

W} the following i 

show specific thicknesses oi 

should I • ubsoil 1 

ditions but als ding to climatic conditions. 



15 



CHAPTER IV 



DESIGN OF CROSS SECTIONS 



S E C T I O N— 1 









1" Rock Asphalt 

Paint Coat 

6" Waterbound Macadam built in two 3" courses 



S E C T I O N— 2 k 



?<<n 






*i: 



^ 



: :: » PI 



1" Rock Asphalt 

Paint Coat 

4" Concrete Base (1:3:6 Mix) 



S E C T I O N— 3 






%" to 1" Rock Asphalt 

4" Bituminous Macadam 

14" to 4" Fine Aggregate Course 



S E C T I O N— 4 




" to 1 Rock Asphalt 
t«i i ' ■ Binder O 

ound Macadam 



SECTION- 



\z#**x*w**av*** 



mm&m mmmm 



'V to 1" Rock Asphalt 

1" to IV Bind* ' 

4" to a " Sandstone Base 



S E C T I O N— 6 



•V Rock Asphalt 

3'' Plant Mix or Local Mix Bii dcr of 

Limestone Screenings and Emulsified A 

1 16 Gals, per Cu. Yd. of Mix) 



S E C T I O N— 7 






2^1 



slX*£ 



<3 ■ ,'QT JTjQ'rj. 



1 ' Rock Asphalt 
Paint Coat 

3" to 4" Waterbound Macadam 
to 2 V Fine Aggregate 



S E C T I O N— 8 






&s£gg* 




1" Rock Asphalt 

Paint Coat 

IV of 3 4" to 14" size Aggregate rolled into 

the base of 4" Stabilized soil or Florida Lim» ; 



16 



CHAPTER V 



SIDEWALKS 



Purpose of Walk 

Due to its pleasing appearance and long life Ken- 
tucky Rock Asphalt walks have been used in parks 
in many States. In addition, sidewalks in recent 
years have become important for pedestrian travel 
along highways and streets in the interest of safety. 
A sidewalk should be so constructed as to be pleas- 
ant to walk on. It should be free from large peb- 
bles, smooth, and yet not slippery. Hence, the 
greatest care should be used in its construction. A 
makeshift sidewalk in rural communities which is 
so poorly constructed that the pedestrians walk on 
the road pavement rather than the sidewalk is of 
little value. A fine sandgrain bituminous mixture 
that is non-skid and non-glaring, such as provided 
by Kentucky Rock Asphalt, makes one of the best 
surfaces for walks. 

Design — Sidewalks may have the same cross sec- 
tion as used on playgrounds and tennis courts 
shown on page 15, the construction of which is 
described in Chapter III. At driveways, however, 
the base should be constructed of greater depth so 
as to be sufficiently strong to prevent breaking 
down under the heavy wheel traffic. Where the 
walk does not contact a curb or other fixed struc- 
ture, it is best to construct the base slightly wider 
than the top. 

Crown — Walks should be sloped for drainage. The 
usual cross slope is Vi to % inch per foot. Topog- 
raphy will determine the direction of the cross 
slope. Where the walk has a longitudinal slope of 
more than tnree feet fall per hundred feet, the 
cross slope should not exceed V\ inch per foot. The 
cross slope may be in one direction or in two direc- 
tions, depending on whether the surface drainage 
is carried away on both sides of the walk or 
whether only on one side as is provided by the 
pavement gutter. 

Local Materials for Banc— Inexpensive materials usu- 
ally can be found locally to make the base of side- 
walks. Stone screenings or bank-run gravel with 
4' ; to l f i clay in it, intimately mixed with cinders, 
make a suitable base course when well compacted 
by sprinkling and rolling. A 2-inch compacted 
layer of 3/ 4-inch to 1%-inch size crushed stone 
rolled into the top of such a mixture and treated 
with liquid asphalt makes an excellent base on 
which to spread a layer of Kentucky Rock Asphalt 
as the wearing surface. Any of the bases shown on 
page 15 and constructed according to Chapters III 
and IV should be suitable. 

Spreading Kentucky Rock Asphalt — The Rock Asphalt 
top is spread by hand rakes as described on page 
9. The number of gauge strips will be few on nar- 
row walks. Sometimes it is attempted to spread 
the top course from the edge boards the full width 



of the walk. However, this is not always practical. 
Furthermore, a center crown on walks draining in 
both directions requires at least one metal gauge 
strip in the center of the walk. 

Rolling — While the use of a 3-wheel self-propelled 
roller to compact the base is desirable, this is not 
practical on narrow walks. Hence, a small tandem 
roller may have to be used. With a light roller it 
is more important that the base be rolled in com- 
paratively thin courses. 

If proper compaction cannot be satisfactorily se- 
cured with the roller, a time interval with sprink- 
ling or rain will aid in securing a stable base. 

Where earth fills are to be made on which to con- 
struct the walk, the fill should be rolled in uniform 
layers not exceeding 4 inches in depth. It is best to 
construct the earth fill to the finished grade of the 
walk and then excavate for the base material. 




Sidewalk in Hot Springs. Va., sur- 
faced with Kentucky Rock Asphalt. 



17 



CHAPTER V 



RESURFACING OLD WALKS 



If the line and grade are satisfactory, many old 
walks can be resurfaced to good advantage. Fre- 
quently they have become rough from age and 
use but are stable. Such walks are economical to 
resurface and thus preserve the value in the old 
walk. This resurfacing may cost only a fractional 
part of the cost of tearing out the walk and build- 
ing a new one which may be no more permanent 
than the old one resurfaced. 

In reclaiming and resurfacing old walks much the 
same principles apply as in constructing new ones; 
namely, the securing of a solid, stable base on 
which to construct a smooth, non-slippery and non- 
glaring top. Hence, the first requisite is to secure 
this stable base. All cracks and breaks in the old 
walk should be dug out to solid base or down to 

1 inch below the depth of the remaining base that 
is being left in place. Such excavations should be 
tamped full of bituminous-coated stone or a coarse 
binder mix, or a dry mixture of 1:3:6 Portland ce- 
ment concrete. 

Where the old walk shows signs of disintegration 

from expansion it will be best to cut out a strip 
about 6 inches wide across the walk and fill it with 
binder mixture well tamped in place. 

Alter this repair work is done, a binder course 1 to 

2 inches deep should be constructed over the whole 



area. The thickness of this course will vary to fit 
the requirements of the old walk. It need be only 
sufficient to provide the required strength and 
rigidity of base and to secure the necessary level- 
ing. On top of this binder course is constructed the 
l 2 to 3 4 inch Kentucky Rock Asphalt top previ- 
ously described. 

After being properly patched, some old walks will 
be ready for the Kentucky Rock Asphalt top with- 
out the expense of constructing a binder course. 
On others it may be desirable to increase slightly 
the thickness of the Kentucky Rock Asphalt top 
instead of constructing a binder course. TUv condi- 
tion of each walk will have to govern this. 

Frequently walks have failed because of lack ot' 
drainage, creating pools of water which soak into 
the surface, base and subgrade; Freezing and tha 

gradually causing disintegration. For tins rea- 
son water should not bo permitted to stand 
depressions on a walk. Depressions should 
ied, or liminated by the cheap ami t 
lod of pa Mini' as described in Chapter VI. 
rinten mce and repair of sidewalks and re- 
surfacing of • Iks deserves a great deal more 
attention than reived In practically ever} 
ility such existing walks present opporti 

fi >i civic improve | snial 1 COSt. 




Kentucky Rock Asphalt Walks in Washington Park. Cincinnati. Ohio. 
1 inch Kentucky Rock Asphalt on Penetration Macadam. Laid 1928. 



18 



CHAPTER VI 



MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR 
of Kentucky Rock Asphalt Surfaces 



A Kentucky Rock Asphalt surface is easy to repair 
with rock asphalt so that the repaired portions will 
be inconspicuous and the whole surface remain 
uniform in appearance. 

Such repairs which are minor in character can be 
made at a very nominal cost with a few simple tools 
such as rake, shovel, hand tamper, brush for paint- 
coating, suitable container for liquid asphalt and a 
small amount of rock asphalt. 

The rock asphalt for repairs may be a small 
amount left from the original construction or new 
material brought in when additional work is being 
done in the city. Where no material is available 
from these sources it may be secured in 200-pound 
bags shipped direct from the plant. 

The rock asphalt spread out in the sunshine for a 
few hours during hot summer days usually will be 
sufficiently soft and pliable to readily spread on the 
areas to be repaired. If it is not sufficiently work- 
able from the heat of the sun, then a small amount 
may be warmed by spreading it on a steel plate 
raised off the ground 6 to 10 inches by bricks or 
stones and a small fire built underneath. The rock 
asphalt while heating should be moved constantly 
on the pla+e with shovel or rake to prevent burn- 
ing. After it is soft and pliable it can be raked to 
one side of the plate away from the extremely hot 
portion where it will remain soft and workable for 
several hours. It may be heated in a suitable com- 
mercial heater which is now made for this purpose. 



The depression or surface to be patched should first 
be lightly painted with a liquid asphalt, cutback, 
or emulsion. For applying this paint coat a hand- 
brush may be used on small areas. As the areas to 
be painted become larger, the application is best 
made by brooming or spraying. 

After the paint coat of liquid asphalt has dried 
until it is tacky, the warmed rock asphalt is spread 
over the surface and tamped or rolled in place so 
that it is smooth, uniform and level with the adja- 
cent surface. The above method is used in making 
skin or surface patches. 

If the old surface shows a base failure it will usu- 
ally be desirable to remove the old material to a 
depth several inches below the bottom of the sur- 
rounding base. This excavated area shall then be 
tamped full of asphalt coated stone or good binder 
material that is just sufficiently stiff and tacky to 
make the well tamped mixture hard and solid. The 
coated stone should be tamped in layers not over 2 
inches in thickness. The rock asphalt top is then 
spread, leveled and tamped or rolled as the finished 
surface leaving same slightly higher than the sur- 
rounding pavement for future settlement. 

If a tennis court or playground has become uneven 
and it is desirable to resurface a large area, it is 
best to do so as specified for a new rock asphalt 
surface as described in Chapter II. This resurfac- 
ing should consist of 30 to 100 lbs. of rock asphalt 
per square yard, depending on the condition of the 
old surface. 




Kentucky Rock Asphalt Heater attached to truck. Cold 
material is shoveled in front and gradually worked 
to the rear end of the Heater, thence to the road. 




Warming Kentucky Rock Asphalt in a metal wheelbar- 
row against which is directed the flame of an oil burner. 



19 



CHAPTER VI 

MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR 
of Kentucky Rock Asphalt Surfaces 





Spreading the warmed rock asphalt on the painted surface. 

Breaks and cracks in sidewalks can readily be 
patched with rock asphalt so as to keep their sur- 
face smooth and uniform. The edges of the cracks 
and crevices in the walk to be patched should be 
first painted with the liquid asphalt. If the patches 
are very small this paint coat can be applied with 
a small paint brush. 

By the above methods of repairing small breaks, 
depressions, and cracks, a Kentucky Rock Asphalt 
surface, whether it be a playground, tennis court, 
sidewalk, or even the highway, can be maintained 
smooth and kept in good condition at negligible 
cost. 

It is only necessary that the caretaker be taught a 
few fundamental principles in doing this work and 



Tamping the rock asphalt. 

that he take the simple precautions required to 
make the work not only easy but low in cost. The 
skill and efforts of the man in charge of such sur- 
faces will soon be displayed by the condition m 
which he keeps the surface. Due to the fact that 
only small amounts of material are needed in ordi- 
nary repair work and the tools and equipment for 
making minor repairs are simple and easy to make 
or secure, there is little excuse tor neglecting this 
work. Repairs should therefore br made as nn^lod 
and not allowed to accumulate until the neglected 
surface is unsightly and tho base damaged so badly 
that major repairs are necessary. 

.1 Will maintained ntrfaa is tin pride of a good caretaket 
and invariably reJL Uigence and interest in his 

work. 




Battery of Tennis Courts. Floodlighted. Garvin Park. Evansville. Ind 
Kentucky Rock Asphalt Surface on Waterbound Macadam. Laid 1927. 









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o ANGLL VALVES 



HOSE 
C OUPLir^6 




BILL OF MATERIAL 



NO 



2 
f 
2 

2 

2 

i 

i 
I 
I 

2 
2 
2 

2 
2 



FN AM £ 



TEES 
TEE 
PLUC>S 

SEX Pipe 

N IPPLES 

niPPLE 

COUPLING 
COUPLING 
SEC STEAM 
HOSE (6 PLY) 
COUPLINGS 
COUPLINGS 
SEC. STEAM 
H O S E (4 PLYj 
ANGLE VALVES 
SEC PIPE 



SIZE 



IX IX f 

I" 

I" 

l"X3 M 

i*' (maleJ 

I" (female] 

!•« * |4 -O" 
j" (male) 

L" ("FEMALE) 
2 ^ 

j\ io'-o M 

1" 

L'K 5 L 0" 

2 



A PLY STEAM HOSE 
10- o" LOING 



<c 



Si 



^2 FEMALE HOSE 
CCUPLiriG- 
J" X 3" NIPPLE 



7 



PIPE 

I" TEE ^ 



I'MALE HOSE 
C OU PLING 

I" G-PLV STEAM HOSE - 
(variable LENGTHS) 



L.J 







MANIFOLD 



TO BOILER 



T FEMALE HOSE 
COUPLING 



DESIGN 

OF 

TWO JET HEATING UNIT 

KENTUCKY ROCK ASPHALT INSTITUTE 



22 



ESTIMATED QUANTITIES OF MATERIALS 



Material 

Kentucky Rock Asphalt 

Binder Course Material (Stone coated with bitumen) 

Waterbound Limestone Macadam Base with 30 \ screenings 

\stone 

/bitumen 

\ crusher-run limestone. 

/bank-run gravel 



Bituminous (Penetration) Macadam. 
Fine aggregate 



Lbs. per sq. yd. of Com- 
pacted Material 1" Depth 

100 



100 

110 to 120 
92 to 100 

5 to 10 
110 to 120 
115 to 125 




Combination playground in Schoolyard at Palmerton. 
Pa. Kentucky Rock Asphalt Surface on Zinc Smelter 
Slag Base. Laid 1927. 




Combination playground at Collegiate School, Louis- 
ville. Ky., which serves for Tennis. Basketball and 
other games. Kentucky Rock Asphalt surface on Ce- 
ment Concrete Base. Laid 1929. 




Walk in Stockley Gardens. Norfolk. Va. Surfaced with Kentucky Rock Asphalt in 1936. 



23 



KENTUCKY ROCK ASPHALT PLAYGROUNDS 





Kentucky Rock Asphalt Playground in the 
yard of the Story School, Milwaukee. Wis. 



Kentucky Rock Asphalt Tennis Court on the grounds of 

the Marine Public Service Hospital. Norfolk, Va. Laid 193fj. 




Main Avenue of the Chicago "Century of Progress Exposition" 1 1933-1934* called the "Ave- 
nue of Flags". It was surfaced with Kentucky Rock Asphalt and carried most satisfactorily 
a pedestrian traffic rarely exceeded anywhere after the pavement had carried an enor- 
mously heavy vehicular traffic for several years. The resilient, non-skid surface, totally 
free from any glare, made it most appropriate for this World's Fair Promenade. 



Kentucky Rock Ospholt 

The Ideal Tennis Court Surface 




/i 



A Battery of Tenm ( Mil b in I I ntral Park, \< u 
Fork ( it v. Surfaced \s i tli Kentucky Rock Asphalt. 



KENTUCKY K(KK ASPHALT INSTITUTE 

LOUISVILLI UNTUCK1